Open Science aims to make research open, creative and collaborative, using modern information and communication technology.

The concept of Open Science, in particular, refers to free access to scientific publications and scientific data, but also includes open-source (using open-source software and hardware), open methodology (sharing information on research methods, tools, and analysis), and open pre-review (quality is ensured through transparent, and a monitored peer-review evaluation process). Open Science makes research more efficient and transparent, increases collaboration between researchers and disciplines, fosters innovation, and thus benefits society.

There is currently no Open Science policy in Estonia. Still, a framework for Estonian open science is presently being prepared as one of the annexes to the Estonian Research, Development, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship Development Plan 2021–2035 (TAIE). This framework is based on the recommendations of the Open Science Expert Group established by the Estonian Research Council in 2016 and two studies conducted within the framework of the RITA program and the recommendations of the European Commission and the OECD. University research libraries and the DataCite Estonia Consortium are actively involved in introducing the principles of open science in Estonia.